Since 2008 the urban population has been rapidly outgrowing the rural population; huge numbers of people migrate to the cities for a variety of different reasons (economic, environmental and health), even in developing countries the majority of people are expected to be living in cities by 2017.
This means two things – more stress on the environment in already crowded natural resource draining areas and far less individuals living in rural spaces. With more and more agricultural workers moving to the cities, farming areas are quickly being taken over by large companies and mechanized. This has a knock on effect environmentally and also socially as farming on a large scale requires carbon emitting equipment and the corporations leading this do not have the local peoples’ interest in mind – or even the consumer’s. Organic farming is quickly being phased out in favour of mass scale agriculture.
Whilst from a GDP perspective this is seen as beneficial especially for developing economies, this does not represent the full impact on human and natural capital. How can we more intelligently measure this impact on environmental and social sustainability?
With over 30 billion sensor enabled objects being connected to networks by 2020 and a huge amount of sensors already available, the impact of economic disparity and environmental damage can be measured across a number of different metrics. The key factor is being able to turn large amounts of data into something meaningful, take insights from it and find a point to target; collecting and aggregating data is unfruitful unless change is found. Being able to quantify data that was not even possible to collect before allows the bridging of the gap between the physical world and computer based systems – creating the possibility of new initiatives which otherwise wouldn’t have been possible to imagine. The real challenge is finding what data to measure, how to combine it and what insights/meaningful data can be derived from these aggregations.
This is especially important for inorganically growing cities like Bangalore. The definition of a Smart City is ambiguous; whilst it relates to technology the idea of automated traffic lights and timed sprinklers does not make a city ‘Smart’. It more importantly describes how a city can engage its citizens to enhance public resources and maximising its potential in a sustainable fashion.